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Author Archive | Robert Thatcher, Ph.D.

Fig. 1 - JTFA normative databases are instantaneous and include within-session variance plus between-subject variance.  In contrast, FFT normative data only contains between-subject variance.  t = time, s = subjects and SDt = standard deviation  within-session and SDs = standard deviation between subjects.  Thus FFT Z scores are larger than JTFA Z scores and a ratio of 2:1 is not uncommon.  (From Thatcher et al,

Z-Score EEG Biofeedback: Conceptual Foundations

The fundamental design concept of Z score biofeedback [also known as Z-Score neurofeedback] was first introduced in 1998 (Thatcher, 1998; 1999; 2000a; 2000b). The central idea of the instantaneous Z score is the application of the mathematical Gaussian curve or ‘Bell Shaped’ curve by which probabilities can be estimated using the auto and cross-spectrum of […]

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